Electrolytes and others


DM induces/and/or  can be (exacerbated) by  electrolyte disturbances ; in brief lets examine below :

*Some Oral hypoglycemic drugs  like metformine may  cause B12 Deficiency  on  long term use .

*Some amino acids (like leucine ) may increase insulin secretion!!!


* More than 40 factors affect blood glucose level :




magnesium-Mg
if decreased ,could lead to insulin resistance and consequently to weight gain 

potassium -K
Esp. when DKA ;   develops,administration of insulin could exacerbate hypokalaemea  and induce heart problems 
**Usu. you need to adjust K+ before  correcting of hypoglycemia 
sodium -Na
could be depressed in DM and needs to be corrected when treating hyperglycemia 

Ca-calcium
high Ca ++Conc. could be associated with increased risk of DM 2 also Vit.D.
please read the below article for further detail:
Calcium and Vit D

Cr-chromium
claimed to be associated with decreased blood glucose 
chromium picolinate 
useful information related to chromium 


Zn-zinczinc may decrease in in diabetes due loss during excessive urination ,ii has been claimed that zink supplementation may decrease cholesterol and A1c:
Zinc vs. Diabetes

* What causes hypokalaemea and hyponataraemea in DKA?